Kudin e-Naira: Ma’ana, fa’idoji da tsarin gudanuwarsa (1) | Aminiya

Kudin e-Naira: Ma’ana, fa’idoji da tsarin gudanuwarsa (1)

e-naira
e-naira
    Abdullahi Salihu Abubakar

Oktoba, 2019 – Washington DC

A cikin watan Oktoban shekarar 2019, na ziyarci kasar Amurka don halartar taron shekara-shekara na masana harkar sabon tsarin hada-hadar kudade ta amfani da hanyoyin sadarwar zamani (Financial Technology – FinTech), wanda aka gudanar a birnin Washington DC, mai taken: “DC FinTech Week.”

Wanda ya kirkiri wannan taro shi ne Farfesa Chris Brummer, babban farfesa a fannin dokokin tattalin arziki, kuma Shugaban Tsangayar Dokokin Tattalin Arziki na Duniya a Jami’ar Georgetown (Institute of International Economic Law, Georgetown Unibersity) da ke Amurka.

Mahalarta wannan taro, kamar na kowace shekara, kwararrun masana ne a harkar fasahar sadarwar zamani da hada-hadar kudade a duniya da tsarin tattalin arzikin da tsarin shari’a da dokokin kasuwanci, da kuma malaman jami’o’i da manyan kamfanonin hada-hadar kudaden zamani irin su: Ethereum da Ripple.

Bayan tattaunawa na tsawon kwanaki, a karshen taron an yarda cewa, hanya mafi sauki da gwamnatocin kasashen duniya za su bi wajen fuskantar kalubalen da sabon tsarin hada-hadar kudade ta kafafen sadarwa (Digital Currency da Cryptocurrency) ya haifar, ita ce, kowace kasa ta yi kokarin shiga cikin lamarin, ta hanyar samar da nata nau’in kudin zamani (Digital Currency).

Wannan, a cewar masanan, shi zai tabbatar da tsari cike hargitsin da sabuwar hanyar hada-hadar kudaden ta samar.

Wannan nau’in kudi, wanda wata kasa za ta samar don wakiltar nau’in kudinta a sabon tsarin hada-hadar kudade na zamani da yake gudana a Intanet, shi ake kira: “Central Bank Digital Currency” ko CBDC a takaice.

Nau’in kudi ne da hukumar wata kasa za ta samar, wanda al’ummarta za ta rika amfani da shi a kafafen sadarwa na zamani.

Kuma idan ana son mallakarsa a zahiri, duk za a juya shi zuwa kudin takarda don a cire a yi amfani da shi.

Ire-iren wadannan kudade su ake kira, Stable Coins.

Daga cikin kasashen da suka amsa wannan kira, akwai kasarmu Najeriya da wasu kasashe 80. A halin yanzu akwai kasashe 5 da suka fara amfani da wannan tsari na CBDC ko Stable Coins.

Biyar daga cikinsu sun tsunduma cikin tsarin tsundum. Kasashe 14 kuma suna kan gwaji, ciki har da Najeriya.

Ragowar kasashen kuma suna kan hanya.

Oktoba 1, 2021 – Abuja, Najeriya

A ranar Juma’a, 1 ga watan Oktoban 2021 ne Babban Bankin Najeriya (CBN) ya so kaddamar da sabon nau’in kudin zamani mai suna: e-Naira, a tsarin gwaji.

Sai dai CBN ya dage kaddamar da sabon nau’in kudin saboda wasu dalilai da ya alakanta da al’amuran da za a gudanar a kasar na bikin cikarta shekara 61 da samun ’yancin kai.

Haka kuma wannan jinkiri ya zo na kwana guda bayan da wani kamfani mai suna ENaira Payment Solutions Limited ya shigar da karar Babban Bankin Najeriya a gaban Babbar Kotun Tarayya kan amfani da sunan ENaira.

Wannan gwaji da Babban Bankin ya so aiwatarwa zai kai har zuwa karshen wannan shekara, kafin tsarin ya game kowa da kowa.

Don haka, na ga dacewar fara bayani a fayyace, cikin harshe mai saukin fahimta, don bai wa masu karatu damar fahimtar wainar da ake toyawa.

Wani dan uwa, wanda masani ne a harkar sadarwar zamani, ya kira ni kwana 5 da suka gabata, inda yake yi min tambaya kan wannan nau’in kudi.

Daga salon tambayarsa ce na fahimci lallai akwai bukatar yin bayani don kara wayar da kan jama’a. Makalarmu ta yau dai za ta zo ne a salon tambaya da amsa. A sha karatu lafiya.

Mene ne e-Naira kuma?

Kudin e-Naira nau’in kudi ne da yake maye gurbin makwafin takardar Nairar Najeriya a tsarin hada-hadar kudade da ake gudanarwa a kafafen sadarwa na zamani.

Darajarsa daya ce da takardar Naira. Sai dai ana iya amfani da shi wajen cinikayya kai-tsaye, a ko’ina ne a duniya.

Kamar yadda karbar takardar Naira take wajibi a Najeriya, haka yake wajibi duk wanda aka sayi hajarsa, ko ya gudanar da wani aiki aka ba shi wannan nau’in kudi ya karba.

Wannan nau’in kudi, kamar takardar Naira da Bankin CBN ne ke bugawa, da tantancewa, da kuma bayar da shi.

Kuma kasancewar rayuwarsa gaba daya a kan tsarin magudanar fasahar hada-hadar kudade ta Intanet ce (Blockchain), akwai tsaro mai karfi ta yadda ba wanda zai iya kirkirar jabunsa.

A takaice dai, nau’in kudi ne na zamani da ake amfani da shi ta hanyar kafafen sadarwar zamani, wanda ake kira Stable Coin.

Idan haka ne, mene ne bambancinsa da su Bitcoin?

Akwai abin da ya hada su, kuma akwai abin da ya raba su. Abin da ya hada su shi ne, kowane daga cikinsu nau’in kudaden zamani ne, wato Digitial Currency, kuma ana kirkira tare da aika su ne ta hanyar fasahar Blockchain, wato magudanar da ake amfani da ita wajen aiwatar da hada-hadar kudade mai cike da tsaro a Intanet.

Amma kuma, a daya bangaren, yayin da e-Naira ke amfani da killataccen tsarin aikawa da karbar kudade a Blockchain, Bitcoin yana amfani ne da tsarin da ke warwatse; ma’ana, babu wata hukuma da take iya sanin abin da masu amfani da madaukan ke karba ko aikawa. Wannan shi ake kira Distributed Ledger System.

Duk abin da ka mallaka a taskarka, kai kadai kake sanin nawa ne, kuma wa da wa suka aiko maka kudi. Amma a tsarin da aka gina e-Naira, Bankin CBN ne yake gudanar da komai, wajen samar da kudin da killace yawansa da kuma bai wa bankunan ’yan kasuwa damar aikawa da karba a yanayi daban-daban.